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[转贴] Build a Base for Cross Country----为越野奠定基础

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发表于 2010-12-17 23:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This page focuses on how runners can build a solid mileage base, which will enable faster and longer speed workouts, such as tempo runs and fartleks and better racing. Without a solid base, there is no way a runner can complete any other workout described on this site. Base training develops the necessary muscle fibers, cardiovascular capacity, and blood capillaries that give the body the ability to run hard workouts.
本文旨在讨论跑步者如何奠定里程基础,使速度训练速度更快,持续更久,比如节奏跑和法特莱克,从而提高比赛成绩。没有坚实的基础,跑步者无法完成本网站介绍的任何其它训练。基础训练可以促进肌肉纤维生成,提高心血管能力,促进毛细血管生成,从而使身体具备承受高强度训练能力。
Runners must complete at least two months of base training before entering into the world of speed workouts. By the way, I highly recommend that you buy a good pair of running shoes before trying to build a training base. If you try to train on old shoes you are putting yourself at high risk for injuries.
跑步者必须完全至少2个月的基础训练,才能开始速度训练。另外,在开始基础训练之前,我强烈建议您选购一双优质跑鞋。如果穿着旧跑鞋训练,您将把自己推向运动损伤的边缘。
How Many Miles To Run
该跑多少英里?
(译注;1英里=1.6公里
The number of miles that a competitive runner should put in varies with age and talent. Generally, 30-50 miles is a good goal for most competitive runners. Of course, runners with more experience should try to run as many miles as they can; it seems the most elite athletes regularly hit 100 miles a week. For high school runners, I think that, on average, freshmen should put in anywhere from 20-30 miles a week, sophomores 30-40, juniors 40-50, and seniors should try to hit consistent 50+ mile weeks.

由于不同的年龄和天赋,跑步者应该达到的里程有所不同。一般说来,对于大多数跑步者,30-50英里是一个很好的目标。当然,经验丰富者应该尝试尽量高的里程,那些精英运动员通常达到每周100英里。对于中学生跑步者,我认为,平均啊,一年级应该为每周20-30英里,二年级30-40,三年级40-50,四年级应该尝试冲击恒定的每周50+英里。

Keep in mind that higher mileage is not always better. If you run 70 miles a week, but have to take a bunch of days off for injury problems, you'll be in worse shape than someone who ran 50 miles a week with no breaks. Mileage totals are a personal thing, which are dependent on the body's ability to adapt to intense training. Therefore, the best advice I can offer you is to experiment. By the way, to determine the mileage of your running routes, use the Runner's Resource Route Mapping Page. It's a great tool to figure out exactly how far you are running.


记住,高里程并不总是好。如果您跑每周70英里,但是,由于损伤不得不停数天,您的状态还不如从不间断每周50英里的人。总里程是私人的事情,取决于自身对高强度训练的适应能力。因此,我可以提供的最佳忠告是试着看看。另外,为了确定您跑步线路的里程,请使用Runner's Resource的电子地图,它是可以确定您跑了多远的极好工具。

Some Helpful Hints 一些有益的提示

Here are a few things I've discovered about trying to build a training base:
我发现以下有关训练基础的几点:
  • Don't push it. If you develop some minor pain take one or two days off. I've had my bouts with achilles tendonitis, heel pain, and knee pain. However, I've discovered that usually when I feel pain, and immediately take two days off, I feel fine afterward. Remember, it's better to miss a day or two of training than an entire month. Another good tip for base training is that runners should generally try to take at least one day off per week. I usually take Sunday off, which gets me ready to start the week again on Monday.
别着急。如果某处有些许疼痛,休息12天。我曾患有跟腱炎,脚跟疼和关节痛。当感到疼时,通常,我立即休息2天,之后就感觉好了。记住,错过12天训练,总比错过整整一个月强。另一个有关基础训练的小贴士是,跑步者一般应该至少每周休息一天。通常,我星期天休息,周一即可投入新的一周训练。
  • Try to run twice a day. I know this is hard to used to, but hammering out 50+ mile weeks is a lot easier when you run twice on one or two days during the week. Keep in mind that you probably get more aerobic benefit from one 8 miler than two 4 milers, but the two 4 milers are a lot easier on your body.
试着一天跑二次。我知道这不容易适应,但是,当每周有12天跑二次时,您可以轻松地达到每周50+英里。记住,一次8英里比二次4英里更可能提高您的有氧能力,但是,二次4英里,您的身体舒服多了。
  • Keep a running log. A log not only helps you keep track of your miles, but it will also provide you with motivation on days you don't feel like running; there is nothing worse than the guilt associated with marking "0 miles" for a training day. For a good way to keep tabs on your training, consider signing up for a Runner's Resource online running log. This feature lets you easily keep track of all of your workouts.
坚持写跑步记录,它不仅可以帮助您记录您的里程,还可以在您不想跑的日子里给您动力;没有任何事比某个训练日的“0英里”记录更丢人了。为了更好地记录您的训练,请考虑注册一个Runner's Resource网站的在线跑步记录,它的特有功能可以帮助您轻松地记录您的所有训练。
  • Keep yourself hydrated. This is especially important if you are training during the summer as the hot and muggy weather will drain the fluids out of your body. To see how important water is, visit my water page. A runner must ensure that he or she is drinking water to get the most out of training runs.
保持您体内的水分。这一点非常重要,因为如果您在炎热的夏季坚持训练,高温闷热的天气将导致您体内的液体流失。了解水的重要性,请参阅我有关水的章节。跑步者一定要保证他或她充足地饮水,以便获得最佳训练效果。
  • Go to a running camp. While most camps are pretty expensive, I think that they are worth it. Don't think that running camps are only for high school and college kids; there are many running camps just for adults. These camps usually bring in great guest speakers who share all sorts of running tips and information. Camps are also a great way to meet other runners and find training partners. Training partners can also be found by joining a running club.
参加跑步训练营,尽管大多数都很昂贵,我认为值得参加。别以为跑步训练营仅适用于中学或大学的孩子;许多跑步训练营招收成人。这些训练营通常会邀请名人演讲,您可以分享丰富的跑步常识和信息。训练营又是一个与其他跑友会面和寻找训练伙伴的场所。参加跑步俱乐部也可以寻找训练伙伴。
How Fast Should Training Runs Be?
训练该跑多快?

This varies with age and talent. A good rule for training pace is to run slow enough that you could carry on a conversation if there was someone running with you. For most runners this would be around 6:30-8:00 mile pace. In fact, a new study by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that humans are designed to run at a specific pace that achieves the best balance between oxygen use and speed. The authors found that the optimal pace for male runners is 7:13 per mile, and, for females, 9:08 per mile. Therefore, if you feel comfortable trying to run these paces, it might be the best way to maximize running efficiency.

这取决于个人的年龄和天赋。训练配速的一个原则是跑的慢些,如果有人一起跑,您应该可以进行谈话。对于大多数跑步者,配速大约是6:30-8:00每英里。实际上,根据Wisconsin-Madison大学的最新研究,人类的结构最适应以一个具体的配速奔跑,此时,氧气使用和速度达到平衡状态。作者发现男士的最佳配速是7:13每英里,女士的最佳配速是9:08每英里。所以,如果按某个配速跑,您感到很舒服,这极可能是提高跑步效率的最佳方式。

Speed Workouts 速度训练

In my training page I've included various speed workouts. Completing tempo runs, fartleks, hill workouts, long runs and track intervals are all important to ensure the best performance in races. A beginning runner should only run two these workouts a week, and a competitive runner should limit them to three times per week. For example, a good week for a competitive runner would be a tempo run on Monday, hill workout on Thursday, and long run on Sunday.


在训练部分,我编入了各种速度训练。完成节奏跑,法特拉克,坡道训练,长距离跑和跑道间歇,对于确保赛事最好成绩,极为重要。对于跑步新人,这些训练每周仅能进行2次,而竞赛型跑步者应该限制这些训练至每周3次。例如,竞赛型跑步者的一周最好是周一节奏跑,周四坡道训练,周日长距离跑。
One important note: do not start speed workouts too early! It is absolutely essential that you run at least two months of base training before any other workout. You must give your body the strength and necessary tools to handle the rigors of speed workouts. Jumping into tempos or fartleks too soon can lead to over-training and cause serious injuries that will prevent you from running for a long time. 一个重要的注释:别过早开始速度训练!最基本的原则是完成至少2个月的基本训练,您才能开始任何其它训练。为了应付艰苦的速度训练,必须给您的身体以力量和其它必要条件。过早开始节奏跑或法特拉克可以导致训练过度和严重的伤害,使您长时间无法跑步。


(译者摘自runner’s resource.com
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发表于 2010-12-18 20:17 | 显示全部楼层
谢谢,我是新人,学习了。
发表于 2010-12-20 16:56 | 显示全部楼层
既是是老马也很受益。
发表于 2010-12-20 19:09 | 显示全部楼层
7:13每英里就是每小时13.3公里,对于我,目前做不到。我感觉10-11公里每小时的时候已经满努力了。
发表于 2010-12-20 22:15 | 显示全部楼层
1600米是7分钟。。。这个速度我能坚持多久呢。。。
发表于 2010-12-20 22:56 | 显示全部楼层
挺有用的东西!
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