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[转贴] Build a Base for Cross Country----为越野奠定基础

发表于 2010-12-17 23:58 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
This page focuses on how runners can build a solid mileage base, which will enable faster and longer speed workouts, such as tempo runs and fartleks and better racing. Without a solid base, there is no way a runner can complete any other workout described on this site. Base training develops the necessary muscle fibers, cardiovascular capacity, and blood capillaries that give the body the ability to run hard workouts.
Runners must complete at least two months of base training before entering into the world of speed workouts. By the way, I highly recommend that you buy a good pair of running shoes before trying to build a training base. If you try to train on old shoes you are putting yourself at high risk for injuries.
How Many Miles To Run
The number of miles that a competitive runner should put in varies with age and talent. Generally, 30-50 miles is a good goal for most competitive runners. Of course, runners with more experience should try to run as many miles as they can; it seems the most elite athletes regularly hit 100 miles a week. For high school runners, I think that, on average, freshmen should put in anywhere from 20-30 miles a week, sophomores 30-40, juniors 40-50, and seniors should try to hit consistent 50+ mile weeks.


Keep in mind that higher mileage is not always better. If you run 70 miles a week, but have to take a bunch of days off for injury problems, you'll be in worse shape than someone who ran 50 miles a week with no breaks. Mileage totals are a personal thing, which are dependent on the body's ability to adapt to intense training. Therefore, the best advice I can offer you is to experiment. By the way, to determine the mileage of your running routes, use the Runner's Resource Route Mapping Page. It's a great tool to figure out exactly how far you are running.

记住,高里程并不总是好。如果您跑每周70英里,但是,由于损伤不得不停数天,您的状态还不如从不间断每周50英里的人。总里程是私人的事情,取决于自身对高强度训练的适应能力。因此,我可以提供的最佳忠告是试着看看。另外,为了确定您跑步线路的里程,请使用Runner's Resource的电子地图,它是可以确定您跑了多远的极好工具。

Some Helpful Hints 一些有益的提示

Here are a few things I've discovered about trying to build a training base:
  • Don't push it. If you develop some minor pain take one or two days off. I've had my bouts with achilles tendonitis, heel pain, and knee pain. However, I've discovered that usually when I feel pain, and immediately take two days off, I feel fine afterward. Remember, it's better to miss a day or two of training than an entire month. Another good tip for base training is that runners should generally try to take at least one day off per week. I usually take Sunday off, which gets me ready to start the week again on Monday.
  • Try to run twice a day. I know this is hard to used to, but hammering out 50+ mile weeks is a lot easier when you run twice on one or two days during the week. Keep in mind that you probably get more aerobic benefit from one 8 miler than two 4 milers, but the two 4 milers are a lot easier on your body.
  • Keep a running log. A log not only helps you keep track of your miles, but it will also provide you with motivation on days you don't feel like running; there is nothing worse than the guilt associated with marking "0 miles" for a training day. For a good way to keep tabs on your training, consider signing up for a Runner's Resource online running log. This feature lets you easily keep track of all of your workouts.
坚持写跑步记录,它不仅可以帮助您记录您的里程,还可以在您不想跑的日子里给您动力;没有任何事比某个训练日的“0英里”记录更丢人了。为了更好地记录您的训练,请考虑注册一个Runner's Resource网站的在线跑步记录,它的特有功能可以帮助您轻松地记录您的所有训练。
  • Keep yourself hydrated. This is especially important if you are training during the summer as the hot and muggy weather will drain the fluids out of your body. To see how important water is, visit my water page. A runner must ensure that he or she is drinking water to get the most out of training runs.
  • Go to a running camp. While most camps are pretty expensive, I think that they are worth it. Don't think that running camps are only for high school and college kids; there are many running camps just for adults. These camps usually bring in great guest speakers who share all sorts of running tips and information. Camps are also a great way to meet other runners and find training partners. Training partners can also be found by joining a running club.
How Fast Should Training Runs Be?

This varies with age and talent. A good rule for training pace is to run slow enough that you could carry on a conversation if there was someone running with you. For most runners this would be around 6:30-8:00 mile pace. In fact, a new study by the University of Wisconsin-Madison found that humans are designed to run at a specific pace that achieves the best balance between oxygen use and speed. The authors found that the optimal pace for male runners is 7:13 per mile, and, for females, 9:08 per mile. Therefore, if you feel comfortable trying to run these paces, it might be the best way to maximize running efficiency.


Speed Workouts 速度训练

In my training page I've included various speed workouts. Completing tempo runs, fartleks, hill workouts, long runs and track intervals are all important to ensure the best performance in races. A beginning runner should only run two these workouts a week, and a competitive runner should limit them to three times per week. For example, a good week for a competitive runner would be a tempo run on Monday, hill workout on Thursday, and long run on Sunday.

One important note: do not start speed workouts too early! It is absolutely essential that you run at least two months of base training before any other workout. You must give your body the strength and necessary tools to handle the rigors of speed workouts. Jumping into tempos or fartleks too soon can lead to over-training and cause serious injuries that will prevent you from running for a long time. 一个重要的注释:别过早开始速度训练!最基本的原则是完成至少2个月的基本训练,您才能开始任何其它训练。为了应付艰苦的速度训练,必须给您的身体以力量和其它必要条件。过早开始节奏跑或法特拉克可以导致训练过度和严重的伤害,使您长时间无法跑步。

(译者摘自runner’s resource.com




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